One of the most asked questions about Christianity goes something like this:
If Jesus is the only way to heaven, what about the people who lived before Jesus was born?
A corollary question is: What about the people who have never had an opportunity to hear about Jesus? I am no biblical scholar, but I have wondered about these things myself.
Jesus leaves no option when he says things like these:
- “‘I am the bread of life. Whoever comes to me will never go hungry, and whoever believes in me will never be thirsty.'” (John 6:35)
- “I and my Father are one.” (John 10:30)
- “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father.” (John 14:9)
- “I am the way, the truth and the light, and no one comes to the Father but through me.” (John 14:16)
The Jews tried to kill him precisely because he equated himself with God. (John 5:18) Jesus surely is not just a prophet or a good person, as some have suggested. Making claims like He made does not leave us the option to consider him just a prophet or a good person. As C. S. Lewis famously said, he is either a lunatic, or demented or He is God.
So, if Jesus was God in the flesh, what about the people who knew nothing about Jesus? He only appeared to particular people in a particular time. Others coming after him have heard about Him and believed in him, but many have never met Him or even heard about Him. What about them?
For starters, Jesus himself said that God desires that no one would perish and that all people would be saved. (John 3:16) God is love, and if God is love He loves all people. (I John 4:8) God does not break His promises like people do. (Numbers 23:18) He is trustworthy; His word is true; and we can trust him. (Here are 52 versus on the trustworthiness of God.)
If we can think of and are concerned about people who died before Jesus or never heard of Him, hasn’t God thought of that too? If God is love, He surely is more concerned than we are.
We see early in the Bible that God made us in His own image. (Gen. 1:26-27) We are the crowning glory of His creation. (Gen. 1:28; Psalms 8:5) He made us like Him; though we are finite. He made us to love as well, though He also allowed us a choice. We are not pre-programmed robots. We must choose to love, choose to take our rightful place, but we are free to rebel. We have the ability to submit to God as our Creator or to go our own way. We can accept Him or reject Him.
One area in which we are free to choose is the area of trust. Do we trust God? Do we take Him at His word? Do we trust that He is good? Do we trust that He loves us?
I dare say that, we tend to trust ourselves more than God – me included. Trust is also a choice.
With that said, there are some hints in the Bible that suggest an answer to the question. Jesus himself suggests that there is a place for people, like Abraham, who had faith in God, to go when they died on this earth before Jesus’s time. Jesus tells a parable of a beggar and a rich man in Luke 16. When the beggar died, the angels took him to Abraham, who was apparently in some place of comfort; the the rich man looked up to them after his death from a place of torment. This parable suggests that Abraham went to heaven when he died.
What was it that brought the beggar to Abraham to heaven while the rich man ended in hell? According to the story,t the rich man ignored the beggar at his gate during life. Being wealthy, the rich man had his reward during life, while the beggar received his reward when life was over. The point of the parable, says Jesus, is not to treasure things of this world that rust and decay, but to store up treasures in heaven. I think there is more to it though.
Being heavenly minded is clearly a clue. (Jesus said so.) Abraham also is a clue.Jesus talked of him being in heaven, but we do not read much of Abraham helping people in the Old Testament. Abraham was also wealthy. If there is no record of Abraham helping people, and if Abraham was rich, then what distinguishes Abraham from the rich man in the parable?
We are told that Abraham did not settle in one place because he was holding out for something different, something better, an eternal city! (Hebrews 11:9-10) By this, we see that Abraham was heavenly minded. He did not live as if this earth, this life, is all there is. More importantly, we are told many times over that Abraham had faith. He is considered the father of faith. (Romans 4:16) He heard God, and he responded to God. He trusted and believed God, and we are told his faith was attributed to him as righteousness. (Gen. 15:6)
I like to think that “righteousness” means being right with God. Godly righteousness does not necessarily mean morally righteous. I believe people can be morally righteous and not be right with God at all. A morally righteous person can be proud, arrogant, self-righteous and actually be opposed to God in attitude, trusting in ones self, relying on one’s own sense of moral superiority. Jesus described that type of people as “white-washed tombs”: they were right on the outside but wrong (dead) on the inside. (Matthew 23:27)
Going back to Abraham, he is held out as the prime example of righteousness (rightness with God). It was Abraham’s faith and trust in God by which God considered him righteous. (Gen. 15:6) In Romans 4, Paul says that Abraham believed God, and faith was credited to him as righteousness (quoting Genesis 15:6). Paul also cites David, (in Psalm 32) that blessed are they to whom God credits righteousness apart from “works”. David was described as “a man after God’s own heart” (alluding to 1 Samuel 13:14).
Neither Abraham nor David were morally perfect people. Abraham lied repeatedly about his wife (claiming her to be his sister). David committed adultery and sent the husband of the woman he coveted to his death in battle. Yet, they are men to whom God attributed righteousness. Specifically, we are told that faith and trust in God is the basis by which God attributed righteousness to them. Faith and trust in God, then, is the way people were saved before Jesus and the way people are saved who have not heard of Jesus.
Faith and trust is also the way we are saved by Jesus. (John 3:16) (Sin and death are what we are saved from. (Ephesians. 2:1-6) Sin leads to separation from God (Isaiah 59:2) and death (Romans 6:23).)
Paul says, “If you declare with your mouth, ‘Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved.” (Romans 8:9-10) Again, though, what about people who have not believed? Bare with me a little bit.
Jesus is God’s litmus test. When he walked among people, people reacted to him in different ways. Some people were compellingly drawn to him; some people argued with him and opposed him; some people just hung back, not committing either way. I believe that the way people reacted to Jesus was how they reacted to God because he was God in the flesh.
“He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him. He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him. Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God— children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband’s will, but born of God. The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us. We have seen his glory, the glory of the one and only Son, who came from the Father, full of grace and truth.” John 1:10-14)
Meeting Jesus face to face triggers a reaction. Confrontation with the decision to accept or reject Jesus today also spurs a reaction. Not meeting Jesus or knowing about Jesus makes the reaction to God less visceral, but we all react to God in our lives whether we are conscious of it or not.
Paul tackled the same issue in Romans when he talked about the law. The Jews were given the law by God through Moses. The Jews were God’s chosen people – God chose to reveal Himself and the law to Abraham’s descendants, but they did not understand what it was that God gave them. They thought themselves superior because of it. But Paul says,
“For it is not those who hear the law who are righteous in God’s sight, but it is those who obey the law who will be declared righteous. (Indeed, when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts sometimes accusing them and at other times even defending them.)” (Romans 2:13-14)
This is a clue. We all have this thing called a conscience – the law of God written on our hearts. But the law does not save anyone! Quite to the contrary, the law condemns.
Paul speaks about the purpose of the law in Romans. In short, the law is meant to expose sin and the need for God’s mercy. (Romans 7:7) The law is meant to dispel the idea that we are right (righteous) in ourselves apart from God. The law is meant to expose sin, which leads to death and decay, and to highlight our need for God, who gives us righteousness and life. Both the Old Testament and the New Testament declare:
- “Indeed, there is no one on earth who is righteous, no one who does what is right and never sins.” (Ecclesiastes 7:20)
- “‘There is no one righteous, not even one….'” (Romans 3:10)
We all need a savior! We all need to throw ourselves on God’s mercy. We are not righteous in ourselves. We are not righteous apart from God. We cannot be right with God by our own efforts. We must trust Him and have faith in Him, and that is what saves us – putting our trust and faith in God.
The way God saves us, and all who came before Jesus, is by the atoning death of Jesus on the cross by which Jesus took our sins upon himself, in effect nailed them to the cross and left them there. (I Peter 2:24) Jesus took our punishment so that we are free to have the life that God has long promised for us going back to Abraham and David and all who have put their trust in God.
“[Abraham] did not waver through unbelief regarding the promise of God, but was strengthened in his faith and gave glory to God, being fully persuaded that God had power to do what he had promised. This is why “it was credited to him as righteousness.” The words “it was credited to him” were written not for him alone, but also for us, to whom God will credit righteousness—for us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead. He was delivered over to death for our sins and was raised to life for our justification.” (Romans 5:20-25)
“But now apart from the law the righteousness of God has been made known, to which the Law and the Prophets testify. This righteousness is given through faith in Jesus Christ to all who believe. There is no difference between Jew and Gentile, for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, and all are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus. God presented Christ as a sacrifice of atonement, through the shedding of his blood—to be received by faith.” (Romans 3:21-25)
I believe that everyone, those who died long before Jesus and those who have never heard about Jesus, have God’s law written on their hearts. To that extent all people can recognize that they do not live up to that law if they are being honest with themselves. How we react to that is how we react to God. Do we compare ourselves to others and become self-righteous, proud, arrogant, uncaring and unforgiving to others, relying on our own selves and seeking only our own benefit; or do we recognize our frailty and need for forgiveness, becoming dependent on God’s goodness, showing mercy and forgiveness to others, seeking the good of others and considering others more important than ourselves? In those reactions lie our attitudes toward God.
The question (what about people who never heard of Jesus) is answered for me in one simple word picture. At the end of the Chronicles of Narnia books, C.S. Lewis describes the end of the world of Narnia. As the hills are being rolled up and stars plucked from the sky, all of humanity is funneled to one gate where Aslan, the Lion (the Christ figure), stood. There was no choice but to pass right in front of him. As people passed their eyes locked on him, and in that instant, they were drawn or repulsed; they went right or they went left, depending on their reaction to Aslan. Each person went right or left based on the reaction in that instant when their eyes met, and that reaction was the culmination of all of the conscious and the unconscious decisions and reactions each person made when confronted with good and evil throughout their lives. The aggregation of those reactions and tendency and the attitude of their lives became set as their lives came to an end; and the reaction to Aslan (Jesus) as they passed Him was set in stone at that point.
This allegory is not biblical, and Lewis did not intend it to be anything other than a children’s story, but it has stuck with me since I first read it. I believe that we are either tending toward God or tending away from God all through our lives. Each day, each moment, each decision, conscious or unconscious, wittingly or unwittingly, we are either drawing near to God or turning away. I also think that when our day comes, and this life ends, that we will have that moment of eyes meeting, face to face, and we will either be repelled or drawn to God, depending on our posture toward God when we die – the culmination of our lives. Those who never heard of Jesus, will equally be drawn or repelled depending on their own posture toward God and the law written on their hearts.
God is good. God is love. He desires that no one perish. He wants everyone to have eternal life. We can take Him at His word, and we can trust Him. God is fair, and He is just. If we attempt to stand on our own righteousness, we will be measured by God’s justice and repelled. If we give ourselves over to God completely, relying on Him, and Him alone to save us, we will receive His mercy.
I believe He provides us all the opportunity to accept Him or to reject Him during our lives, but when our lives come to an end, our way will have been chosen. Our attitude toward God will be set by all the little choices and the direction or our lives at that point. In the moment, when we meet face to face, it will be too late to change the course we chose during our lives. Our direction will be set. To the left or to the right, toward God or away from Him, we will be drawn or we will be repelled in that instant.
The question for all of us now as long as we live is…. What will you do today?
How will you react to God today?
“There are only two kinds of people in the end: those who say to God, “Thy will be done,” and those to whom God says, in the end, “Thy will be done.” All that are in Hell, choose it. Without that self-choice there could be no Hell. No soul that seriously and constantly desires joy will ever miss it. Those who seek find. Those who knock it is opened. ”
― C.S. Lewis, The Great Divorce